Sunday, March 6, 2011

India Timeline

India Across the Ages
South India North India
Punjab Sindhu Gujarata Maratha Dravida Utkala VangaVindhya Himachal Yamuna GangaPunjab Sindhu Gujarata Maratha Dravida Utkala Vanga Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga
3300Indus Valley: Ravi Phase Bronze Age Late Indo-European (IE) people Kurgan (Pit Grave) Culture
RED: World Heritage Site3100 Indo-European Language
BLUE: Art, Literature, Science, Religion or Socio-Cultural Renaissance3000Mohenjodaro City
GOLDEN: Emergence of Pan-India or Golden Age2900Long Distance Voyage with Mesopotamia
2800 Indo-Iranian (IIr.) people Separated from IE (Hut Grave)
2700s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in RED bar 2700s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in BLUE bar2700City States (Sumer) , Old Kingdom (Egypt) & Elam (Iran)
2600s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in GREEN bar 2600: Important Highlights of same Dynasty marked in BLUE2600Mature Harappan Phase
2500s: Important Highlights of same Dynasty marked in GREEN 2500s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in VIOLET bar2500Elamo-Dravidian Language Centum-Satem division complete IIr. a Satem language
2400First dock at Lothal
2300Prominence of Babylon
2200 Non IIr. BMAC in Central Asia & IIr. Andronovo Culture
2000 Indo-Aryan & Iranian breakup (The Aryan Trail)
1900Prominence of Ashur (Assyria) Early Andronovo people in BMAC
1800 Later Andronovo people in BMAC
1700Decline of Indus Valley Spreading of Natives India-wide Aryan migration to Swat & Syria Decline of BMAC
1600 Remnants of Indo-Aryans in Gandhara Graves
1500Start of Aryan/Vedic Age Earliest Vedas: Rig Veda Ochre Colored Pottery Culture
1400Origin of Indian Music
1300Probable Mahabharata War
1200Settlements outside Punjab Prominence of Kuru Kingdom Black & Red Ware Culture
1100Atharva Veda mentions Iron Beginning of Iron Age
1000Eastward expansion of Aryans Use of Iron: Impact of Plough
900Prominence of Panchala Painted Grey Ware Culture
800Kasi, Kosala & Videha
700Earliest Upanishad Age of 16 Mahajanapadas Democratic Republican States
600Mahabharata, Ramayana Panini's Sanskrit Grammer Silver coins: Magadha & Kosala
500Mahavira: Rise of Jainism Gautam: Rise of Buddhism University of Taxila Bimbisar: 1st Historical King
400 Magadha: New center of power Prominence of Pataliputra
Sangama Chera Dynasty Sangama Chola Dynasty3001st Pan India Maurya EmpireChankya's Arthashastra Porus fights with Alexander Rise of Chandragupta-Chanakya
Pallava Dynasty Sangama Pandya Dynasty Oldest Tamil Grammer200Kalinga War: Ashoka's RiseSachi, Bodhgaya Temples Start of Satavahana Empire
100End of Maurya Dynasty Rise of Sungas: Magadha Ajanta Cave Painting 1st Phase
0 BCVikramaditya of Malwa, Avanti VikramSamvat Era: 57 BC Invasion by Sakas Ujjain: Prime Meridian of India
Ambassadors to Greek, Rome0 ADKushan Empire: Kanishka Charak in Kanishka's Court Start of Western Satraps(Sakas) Saka Era: 78 AD
100Monasteries at Takht-i-BahiGandhra Art Flourishes
Tamil Dark Age: Kalabhras End of Tamil Sangama Age200Bamiyan Buddha Vakataka Dynasty
Kadamba: 1st Kannada Rule 3002nd Pan India Gupta EmpireGolden Age: Art/Science/Lit
400Vikramaditya's Nava Ratna Nalanda University Ajanta Cave Painting 2ndPhase
Badami Chalukya Kingdom 500Hun Invasion: Fall of GuptasBrahmagupta Born Pratihara: 1st Rajput Kingdom Prominence of Kanauj
Chalukyan Architecture Pulakeshi II defeats Harsha Revival: Pallava Golden AgeMahabalipuram ShoreTemples600Harshavardhana's Rule Attempt to unify North India Kingdom covers Central/North
Temples at Pattadakal Adi Shankaracharya700Democratic election of Gopala Pala Empire: North/East Defends 1st Mulsim attack
Rashtrakuta Kingdom Kannada Literature flourishes 800Origin of Bengali languageSomapura Mahavihara Conflict with Pala & Rashtrakuta Kanauj Triange
Elephanta/Ellora Caves 900Chandela Rajput Kingdom: West/Central (Bundelkhand) Rise of Chauhans, Paramaras Rise of Solanki (Gujarata)
Western Chalukya Kingdom Chola Golden Age: Rajaraja Great Living Temples of Cholas1000Khajurao Monuments Chauhans: Ruler of Delhi Eastern Ganga Dynasty (Orissa)
Bhaskaracharya Hoysala gains prominenceTemples of Belur/Halebidu1100Rise & Fall of Prithviraj Chauhan Md. Ghor ruler of Delhi
Kakatiya Kingdom: Andhra Yadava Kingdom: Karnataka Pandya Golden Period Jatavarman Sundara Pandya1200Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty Qutb-ud-din-Aybak: Qutb Minar Konark Sun Temple
Beginning of Vijaynagar EmpireGolden Age of Carnatic Music1300Khilji & Tughlaq Dynasti Amir Khusro's Music Bengal Sultanate of Pathans Krittibasi Bengali Ramayana
Bahamani Sultanate peaks Breaks into 5 Deccan Sultanates 1400Sayyid & Lodi Dynasties Bhakti Cult: Kabir & Nanak Semi Independent for centuries Trade flourishes
Prominence of Deccan Sultanates Unitedly fight Vijaynagar Peak: Krsihna Deva RayaMonuments at Hampi1500Babur: Mughal Empire starts Humayun: Humayun's Tomb Akbar: 3rd Pan India Empire Nava Ratna, Fatehpur Sikri
Falls to Mughals gradually Shivaji takes most of Bijapur Falls to Bijapur Sultanate Gradual independence of Mysore1600ShahJahan: TajMahal RedFort Shalimar Gardens, Thatta Maratha Empire: Shivaji Mughals fight Shikhs/Marathas
Mysore: Rise of Hyder Ali/Tipu Nizam of Hyderabad1700Gradual Decline of Mughals Maratha peaks under Peshwas
Tipu/Mysore falls to East India Remains friendly to Company1750Mirza Ghalib Born Battle of Plassey: Company Rule
Company consolidates in South Wodeyar becomes Mysore King1800Ranjit Singh's Shikh Empire Bengal Rennaissance
British Rule & Princely States Remains friendly to British1850Rise of Indian Nationalism Sepoy Mutiny: British Rule
India's Independence Nizam, Mysore join India1900Gandhi's Nonviolence India's Independence
Congress Rule & Emergency Dravidian & Regional Politics1950Congress Rule & Emergency Terrorism, Green Revolution
Mission to Moon Path to economic super power2000Mission to Moon Path to economic super power
The intent of this Timeline is to highlight the fact that there are much more than just fights and betrayals and devastations in the 5000 years of history of the Indian sub-continent. It unfurls the story of evolution of the all-inclusive, tolerant, assimilative and dynamic Indian Culture and tradition. It speaks about the extraordinary achievements of humanity over long periods of peace and prosperity - something rarely seen anywhere else in the world. It speaks about the highs and lows, the successes and failures - each of which played a vital role in shaping up the Indian Culture.
Each dynasty or period is marked with a vertical bar of a particular color. The length of the bar is same as the duration for which the dynasty or period existed. The beginning of any dynasty or period and the related important highlights in different centuries are mentioned in an enclosure that encloses also the associated bar representing the dynasty. For example the Maratha Empire starting in 1600s and stretching till second half of 1700s is depicted by a chocolate-brown bar. The important highlights like rise of Shivaji and the fights with Mughals in 1600s and attaining its peak under the Peshwas in the first half of 1700s are mentioned against the correct centuries in an enclosure that encloses the chocolate-brown bar from top. The enclosure might not neccessarily extend till the end of the dynasty if there is no important event to highlight.
Created by Sudipto Das, Jan '09
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